Macula is the central part of the retina, which provides the accurate, precise and color vision. Macular degeneration (MD) is a collective name for a group of diseases which affect the function of light-sensitive retinal tissue. It occurs most commonly in the age of 60 and over and in this case is called age-related macular degeneration. Less common are some inherited forms that affect children and young people.
The main symptom is a reduction or loss of central vision. Macular degeneration makes difficulties while doing fine detailed work (reading, needlepoint and etc.). Other symptoms are colors lose brightness, straight lines appear curved and in the center of the visual field appears dark spot.
The two most common types of age-related macular degeneration are "dry" and "wet" (exudative). More commonly diagnosed is ''dry" macular degeneration. It leads to slow and gradual reduction of vision. The "wet" form of macular degeneration is so called because of leakage of blood and fluid into the tissue of the retina. The reason are newly formed blood vessels under the retina. This form of degeneration leads to vision reduction more rapidly and more significantly.
The treatment is different for the different types of MD. When we have "dry" form of MD perscripted are vitamins, antioxidants and lutein pills. In the case of "dry" MD sometimes laser treatment is possible. Precisely focused laser beam is used to burn the blood vessels that damage the macula. This is possible only when these vessels are not in the center of the macula. A new treatment is intraocular injection of substances eliminating these vessels. Injections are made by scheme - first 3 months, every 4 то 6 weeks - 1 injection and then in every 3 months by 1 injection.